Some South Africans prefer the appellation "bruinmense" to "Colored". The South African pencil test was one example of a characteristic other than skin color being used as a determiner. The pencil test, which distinguished either "black" from "Colored" or "Colored" from "white", relied upon curliness and strength of hair i.
The pencil test could "trump skin color". Steve Biko , in his trial in , rejected the appellation "brown people" when it was put to him incorrectly by Judge Boshoff: . Penelope Oakes  characterizes Biko's argument as picking "black" over "brown" because for Biko it is "the most valid, meaningful and appropriate representation, even though in an individualistic decontextualized sense it might appear wrong" Oakes' emphasis.
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This contrasts with Piet Uithalder, fictional protagonist of the satirical column "Straatpraatjes" whose actual author was never revealed but who is believed to have been Abdullah Abdurahman that appeared in the Dutch-Afrikaans section of the newspaper APO between May and February Uithalder would self-identify as a Colored person, with the column targeted at a Colored readership, introducing himself as "een van de ras" "a member of the race" and characterizing himself as a "bruine mens".
In popular use, Brazilians also use a category of moreno m.
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Thus, the only possible basis to deal with genetic variation in Brazilians is not by considering them as members of color groups, but on a person-by-person basis, as million human beings, with singular genome and life histories". Judith Ortiz Cofer notes that appellation varies according to geographical location, observing that in Puerto Rico she is considered to be a white person, but in the United States she is considered to be a "brown person. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Race historical definitions , Scientific racism , and Color terminology for race.
Main article: Coloureds. Main article: Pardo Brazilians. Main article: Hispanic Americans. Charles Scribner's Sons. University of Chicago Press. Jackson New York, N. Race Blackwell Publishing: Boston, The Equality of the Human Races. Asselin Charles translator and Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban contributor. University of Illinois Press. Understanding Race. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 13 January Keane, A.
Hingston Quiggin, A.
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Race in Another America: the significance of skin color in Brazil. In , the white labor historian David R. Nearly two decades later, amid a rancorous debate over our first black President, the idea of abolishing whiteness seems no less tantalizing—and no less remote. Her narrative opens in ancient Greece, with Hippocrates, who published his ethnography of the known world around B. Like many of his contemporaries, Lavater was a devout craniologist, and it was through craniology that whiteness was given scientific validation.
The Caucasian race begins with an evocation of bondage, and the skull of a young Georgian woman helped seal the connection between whiteness and weakness. It is a delicate race, always on the verge of being overrun or adulterated, dethroned or debunked. The supposed perfection of whiteness makes it vulnerable: every flaw and quirk, every tangled bloodline and degraded specimen, is seen as an existential threat, poised to undermine the whole project. In eighteenth-century America, whiteness came to connote the opposite of slavery. The rule held—and, for the most part, still holds—that any person of mixed black and white ancestry is black, no matter the mixture.
Long before it had any sort of coherent cultural or historical identity, whiteness in America was a broad, loosely defined political category, which is precisely why so many scholars knocked themselves out trying to fill in the details.
Painter aims for the conceptual heart of the race, but Roediger, the eminent abolitionist of whiteness, has always been more interested in its margins and boundaries. He also tells the story of Charles W. Janson, a British businessman who came to America in and, sometime during his thirteen-year visit, offended a white domestic worker by asking to speak with her master. The end of the Civil War was a perilous moment for whiteness. Roediger writes that some poor white laborers in the South started wearing brimless wool hats, to distinguish themselves from ex-slaves, who customarily wore straw hats.
And he tracks the insurgent whiteness of the Ku Klux Klan, founded after the end of the war and revived in , the year of D.
The white men of the South were aroused by the mere instinct of self-preservation to rid themselves, by fair means or foul, of the intolerable burden of governments sustained by the votes of ignorant negroes and conducted in the interest of adventurers: governments whose incredible debts were incurred that thieves might be enriched, whose increasing loans and taxes went to no public use but into the pockets of party managers and corrupt contractors. But who counts as Caucasian? But the borders of whiteness were never quite defined, let alone sealed. The boundaries of whiteness have often reflected the imperatives of U.
And there remains something particularly fraught about the whiteness of Italian-Americans, which has been contested for centuries. In this tribe, the bond between skin color and identity had been decisively severed with help from a nearby tanning salon , and it was discovered that not all the stars were of pure Italian heritage. It was possible for Wallace to portray himself as a defender of the white race without mentioning race at all.
This was not a new strategy. Throughout history, the power of whiteness has often been linked to its invisibility: white supremacy lurked in seemingly race-neutral language, unmentioned and therefore incontestable. The success of the civil-rights movement had the paradoxical effect of strengthening this pernicious tradition by making white pride taboo; white politicians had to rely on increasingly subtle forms of coded speech.
These are the questions that liberals have been asking of the Tea Party movement, a decentralized libertarian-influenced conservative movement that has cast its opposition to President Obama as an opposition to runaway government spending, runaway public debt, runaway taxation. There have been race-related controversies. More often, though, the Tea Party movement has been relatively disciplined in its focus on spending and taxing.
Conceivably, arguments about health-care reform have been advanced in bad faith, in the hope of stoking white racial resentment. Because explicit formulations of white-identity politics are taboo, we have no non-pejorative way to talk about the disproportionate whiteness of the Tea Parties.
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This professedly anti-racist argument is about as close as anyone comes to articulating a mainstream political agenda that is explicitly pro-white. In the Warner Bros. Early on, Michael explains why his new surroundings feel so strange.